Behavioral Research Therapy, 31, Diagnoses were confirmed in the RA group by a board-certified rheumatologist and all participants met American College of Rheumatology criteria. Evidence of a lagged relationship.
Social support, Type A behavior, and coronary artery disease. They found that patients reported significant increases in visits to health services and intrusive symptoms five weeks after written emotional expression compared to matched controls.
Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 2They theorized that adverse effects could be a function of cognitive biases associated with high anxiety and depression inherent in participants.
Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 2 weeks and 2 months and 4 months after writing and were done blind to experimental condition. The Structure of Well-Being.
Further, participants in the emotive writing group reported they had thought more about what they wrote, and had a tendency to find the writing sessions more meaningful than participants in the unemotive writing group.
In another activity, readers learn to define their feelings even further by completing the following sentences for basic emotions: Thus, the patterning of data may be a result of design features, which have previously been found to influence the efficacy of disclosure.
What should be reported and what should be replicated. In tests of moderator variables, he found that the greatest improvements in overall well-being occurred in men rather than women, and when writing was spaced over longer time periods.
Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, In addition, participants in our emotive writing condition appeared to use fewer problem solving coping strategies and more repressive coping strategies at longer follow up periods, suggesting poor re-integration of the traumatic memories and further attempts at unsuccessful repression.
Association between physical and psychological morbidity in the Whitehall II study. It is possible that the degree of uncontrolled exposure might be a factor contributing to the short-term distress.
Participants were asked to write continuously, without regard for spelling or stylistic concerns, and were signaled to stop after 20 minutes.
However, in contrast to most previous studies, no differences in negative mood were observed between the writing groups. The unstructured nature of our participants' exposure to their traumatic memories may therefore create additional distress in individuals who are less able to exert cognitive control over their memories.
Therefore it is possible that participants continued to think about their traumatic disclosures for some time after they wrote about them. Changes in cognitive coping strategies predict EBV-antibody titre change following a stressor disclosure induction.
Psychological and physical health impacts of a short term psychoeducational intervention. American Psychologist, 32, Six correlation co- efficients were computed to examine these relationships; one reached the criteria for statistical significance. Any other usage is prohibited without the express permission of the authors.
Thus, we found less evidence of an overall health benefit than previous studies and the improvements that emerged were restricted to psychological well-being. Association between physical and psychological morbidity in the Whitehall II study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 4Gidron, Y.
A theoretically based approach. Unlike past studies, the present writing intervention took place at home rather than in the laboratory, and so, we had little control over the choice of topic, recency of trauma or length of writing period.
Thus, cognitive changes may account for the health benefits of written emotional expression of past traumas, either independently of disinhibition, or as part of it. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, It calls for participating subjects to write an essay, typically during a 3-day period, expressing their thoughts and feelings about a traumatic experience.
Emotional expression and physical health: American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, However, in contrast to most previous studies, no differences in negative mood were observed between the writing groups. Minor infection, minor life events and the four day desirability dip.
Written emotional expression was associated with short-term detrimental physical health effects and less substantial long-term psychological health benefits, cautioning against the adoption of written emotional expression alone in the home environment.
In an effort to understand emotional change, brief psychotherapy was compared with written expression about stressful life events as well as with a control condition of writing about trivial events using college students. Similar emotional processing was produced by vocal and written expression of feeling about traumatic events.
The painfulness of the topic decreased steadily over the 4 days.
At the end, both groups felt better about their topics and themselves and also reported positive cognitive changes. Emotional disclosure through writing of speaking modulates latent Epsterin-Barr virus antibody tilets. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, – Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline, ISI: Franis, M.
E., Pennebaker, J. W. ().
Putting stress into. In an effort to understand emotional change, brief psychotherapy was compared with written expression about stressful life events as well as. Written emotional expression was associated with short-term detrimental physical health effects and less substantial long-term psychological health benefits, cautioning against the adoption of written emotional expression alone in the home environment.Emotional expression in written essays and psychotherapy